This course is approved by the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services Division of Facility Services - Group Care Licensure Section (NC-DHHS)
Program Sponsor ID #032316; Approval # . This activity is approved for 1.00 contact hours.
Relias, LLC is approved by the California Department of Social Services as a Continuing Education Training Program Vendor to provide Continuing Education training courses to administrators of residential care facilities for the elderly.
Vendor/Provider # 2000224-740-2;
Approval # 224-0145-32643.
This activity is approved by the California Department of Social Services for 1.00 contact hours.
This course is approved as continuing education by the Oregon Department of Human Services in accordance with state regulation 411-057-0140 for Assisted Living Administrators, Residential Care facility Administrators and Memory Care Communities within the State of Oregon. This activity is approved by Oregon Department of Human Services for 1.00 contact hours.
This is not an accredited course for professional license renewal. Florida CNAs may use this inservice toward meeting their annual inservice requirement.This activity is approved for 1.00 contact hours.
Relias Learning, LLC is approved as a Curriculum Developer by the Washington State Department of Social and Health Services. This activity is approved for 1.00 contact hours for all WA State Direct Care Workers. Training Provider Code: WA0624. CE Approval Code: CO1933616
I. Introduction a. Getting older b. Genetics c. Attitude d. Resilience II. What about aging? a. Why does the body age? b. When does the body start aging? c. Some general body changes from aging i. Increased body fat ii. Decreased water and muscle iii. Decreased removal of toxins and wastes from the body iv. Narrowing of the visual field v. Changes in depth perception vi. Increased production of ear wax III. Learning Engagement Activity: Questions (multiple choice) IV. How the body is organized a. Systems b. Organs c. Tissues d. Cells e. Learning Engagement Activity: Matching V. The body systems a. The nervous system i. The parts 1. Brain 2. Spinal cord 3. Sensory organs 4. Central nervous system 5. Peripheral nervous system ii. The function 1. Control and coordinate all body functions 2. Sense, interpret, and respond to changes occurring both inside and outside of the body iii. Aging changes 1. Slower mental processing 2. Changes in sleep patterns 3. Slower responses and reflexes 4. Decreased sensitivity in nerve endings iv. Common diseases and conditions 1. Stroke 2. Parkinson’s disease 3. Multiple sclerosis 4. Head and spinal cord injuries 5. Epilepsy 6. Neuropathy (nerve pain) 7. Various types of dementia v. Care considerations 1. Medications that affect brain function 2. Delayed processing and reaction time 3. Blood pressure management 4. Encourage physical activity 5. Encourage a healthy diet 6. Encourage socialization and activities vi. Learning Engagement Activity: Questions (multiple choice) b. The sensory system i. The parts 1. Brain 2. Eyes 3. Ears 4. Nose 5. Tongue ii. The function 1. Five senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell, touch iii. Aging changes 1. Vision and hearing decrease 2. More sensitive to glare 3. Senses of taste, smell, and touch decrease 4. Sensitivity to heat and cold decreases 5. Sense of balance may be affected iv. Common diseases and conditions 1. Hearing loss 2. Vision loss 3. Cataracts 4. Glaucoma 5. Macular degeneration v. Care considerations 1. Approach from the front 2. Ensure good lighting, reduce glare 3. The taste for sweetness remains as we age 4. Encourage sips of fluid so mouth is not dry, allowing for enhanced taste 5. Provide food that is palatable 6. Assist with eating; provide enough time 7. Maintain glasses and hearing aids in good condition 8. Speak with a moderate mid-level tone vi. Learning Engagement Activity: Questions (multiple choice) c. The cardiovascular (circulatory) system i. The parts 1. Heart 2. Arteries 3. Veins 4. Capillaries ii. The function 1. Circulates blood throughout the body 2. Supplies nutrients, oxygen, and hormones to cells 3. Supplies body with infection-fighting blood cells 4. Removes waste products from cells 5. Controls body temperature iii. Aging changes 1. Heart pumps less efficiently 2. Heart may become slightly bigger 3. Blood vessels and arteries may become narrower and stiffer 4. Blood flow decreases iv. Common diseases and conditions 1. Coronary artery disease 2. High blood pressure (hypertension) 3. Heart attack (myocardial infarction) 4. Congestive heart failure 5. Stroke v. Care considerations 1. Encourage movement and exercise 2. Teach range-of-motion exercises 3. Allow time to complete ADL tasks 4. Suggest layering of clothing 5. Encourage a good diet 6. Promote sleep 7. Help to manage and reduce stress vi. Learning Engagement Activity: Questions (multiple choice) d. The respiratory system i. The parts 1. Airway (nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar sacs, alveoli) 2. Lungs 3. Muscles that aid in breathing ii. The function 1. Inspiration and expiration 2. Carry air between the lungs and the body’s exterior 3. Oxygenate blood from the heart 4. Remove carbon dioxide from the blood iii. Aging changes 1. Lung strength decreases 2. Lung capacity decreases 3. Oxygen in the blood decreases 4. Voice weakens iv. Common diseases and conditions 1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease a. Bronchitis b. Emphysema c. Pneumonia d. Asthma 2. Bronchiectasis 3. Upper respiratory infection 4. Lung cancer 5. Tuberculosis v. Care considerations 1. Encourage movement and activity 2. Allow time for care vi. Learning Engagement Activity: Questions (multiple choice) e. The musculoskeletal system i. The parts 1. Bones (206 total) 2. Joints 3. Muscles 4. Tendons ii. The function 1. Provide a framework for the body 2. Bones serve as attachment points for muscles and tendons 3. Enable body movement 4. Bone marrow creates new blood cells iii. Aging changes 1. Bones shrink in size and density 2. Bones are more susceptible to fracture 3. Muscles may lose strength, tone, and flexibility 4. Joints may stiffen and lose “padding” (cartilage) 5. May have more trouble with balance and coordination 6. Height is gradually lost iv. Common diseases and conditions 1. Osteoporosis 2. Arthritis 3. Rheumatoid arthritis 4. Compressed vertebrae 5. Fractures, such as hip fractures 6. Joint replacement, such as knee replacement 7. Amputation v. Care considerations 1. Move body parts slowly if stiff 2. Remove tripping hazards 3. Encourage movement (active or passive) 4. Observe for fatigue 5. Use a gait belt for assisting with transfers 6. Monitor for adequate calcium and vitamin D intake vi. Learning Engagement Activity: Questions (multiple choice) f. The gastrointestinal (digestive) system i. The parts 1. Mouth, teeth, gums 2. Salivary glands 3. Esophagus 4. Stomach 5. Duodenum 6. Liver 7. Gallbladder 8. Pancreas 9. Small intestine 10. Large intestine 11. Rectum/anus ii. The function 1. Digestion: to physically and chemically break up food we eat for cell nutrition 2. Elimination iii. Aging changes 1. Decreased saliva production affects the ability to chew and swallow 2. Dulled sense of taste may result in poor appetite 3. Absorption of vitamins and minerals decreases 4. Process of digestion takes longer and is less efficient 5. Body waste moves more slowly through the intestines, causing more frequent constipation iv. Common diseases and conditions 1. Gums may pull back and recede 2. Medications may cause dry mouth 3. Teeth and gums are more vulnerable to decay 4. Medications may contribute to a slower digestive system 5. Gastroesophageal reflux disease 6. Heartburn 7. Constipation 8. Bowel impaction v. Care considerations 1. Offer nutritious meals that look appealing 2. Provide regular oral care 3. Make sure dentures fit properly 4. Offer fluids during mealtimes and throughout the day 5. Provide an opportunity for a daily bowel movement 6. Encourage physical activity 7. Provide regular perineal care vi. Learning Engagement Activity: Questions (multiple choice) g. The urinary system i. The parts 1. Kidneys 2. Ureters 3. Bladder 4. Urethra 5. Meatus ii. The function 1. Maintain water balance in the body 2. Filter blood to remove waste 3. Store urine 4. Drain urine from body iii. Aging changes 1. Ability of kidneys to filter blood decreases 2. Bladder muscle tone weakens 3. Bladder holds less urine, which causes more frequent urination 4. Bladder may not empty completely, causing a greater chance of infection iv. Common diseases and conditions 1. Renal (kidney) failure 2. Urinary tract infections 3. Incontinence v. Care considerations 1. Encourage fluids 2. Provide regular perineal care 3. Schedule bathroom times 4. Monitor weight 5. Reduce caffeine and medications that negatively affect bladder function vi. Learning Engagement Activity: Questions (multiple choice) h. The integumentary system (the skin) i. The parts 1. Skin 2. Hair 3. Nails 4. Exocrine glands ii. The function 1. The largest organ 2. Regulate body temperature 3. Protect body from invaders (infection) 4. Prevent the loss of too much water through sweat 5. Respond to heat, cold, pain, touch, pressure iii. Aging changes 1. Skin becomes thinner, less elastic, and more fragile 2. Skin bruises more easily 3. Protective fatty layer is lost 4. Wrinkles, age spots, and small growths are more common
Cynthia McDaniel MSN RN, is a nurse and administrative consultant in long term care. She is the CEO of ElderWise Inc, a senior living consulting and education group. Cynthia has worked as a nurse consultant for the States of Oregon and Washington, a geriatric care manager, a regional director of clinical operations for a senior living company, and an assistant professor at Oregon Health & Science University School of Nursing. Her research in assisted living focused on the characteristics of residents in assisted living communities and the role of the nurse in assisted living. Cynthia holds a Master's of Science in Nursing from Gonzaga University in nursing education. She is a Fellow of the Sigma Theta Tau/John A. Hartford Foundation Geriatric Nursing Leadership Academy. Disclosure: Cynthia McDaniel, MSN, RN has declared that no conflict of interest, Relevant Financial Relationship or Relevant Non-Financial Relationship exists.Instructor: Catherine Zimmerman, LICSW, ACHP-SW, CSW-G
Catherine Zimmerman is a licensed independent clinical social worker who has a private practice providing counseling services to people of all ages and all stages of their lives. She is a freelance healthcare writer and speaker specializing in mental health, ethics, hospice and palliative care, gerontological topics, substance misuse, caregiving, stress and trauma. Zimmerman received her master's degree from Portland State University thirty years ago and is certified in clinical social work-Gerontology. Zimmerman supervises and mentors therapists seeking licensure in Oregon or Washington states. She is the current President of the Washington chapter of the National Association of Social Workers and has provided public presentations on over twenty topics and has numerous published works. Disclosure: Catherine Zimmerman, LICSW, ACHP-SW, CSW-G has declared that no conflict of interest, Relevant Financial Relationship or Relevant Non-Financial Relationship exists.